When you upload your references to Rayyan, the tool automatically removes any **exact matches** from your search results. This ensures that your project only contains unique references, saving you time and effort during the review process. Rayyan lists the duplicates under the **Auto-Deduplicated** facet and provides a clear breakdown of the results.

To calculate the total number of duplicates removed, Rayyan uses the formula **(n-1)*x**, where:

n = The number of exact matches

x = The number of duplicates with that number of exact matches.

If Rayyan discovered the following, for instance:

92 citations with 2-exact matches, (2-1)*92 = 92

31 citations with 3-exact matches, (3-1)*31 = 62

18 citations with 4-exact matches, (4-1)*18 = 54

7 citations with 5-exact matches, (5-1)*7 = 28

2 citations with 6-exact matches. (6-1)*2 = 10

To break it down further, Rayyan found and resolved the following number of duplicates based on the number of exact matches:

92 duplicates were removed and 92 were kept for 2 exact matches

62 duplicates were removed and 31 were kept for 3 exact matches

54 duplicates were removed and 18 were kept for 4 exact matches

28 duplicates were removed and 7 were kept for 5 exact matches

10 duplicates were removed and 2 were kept for 6 exact matches

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